CANCER-ASSOCIATED HEPARANASE DETECTION VIA GLYCO-NANOPROBE
Orlando Antelope, Kuberan Balagurunathan, Mausam Kalita, April Joice.
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
Cancer is a non-communicable disease which causes nearly 8 million deaths worldwide each year. There is an urgent need to design and develop a robust, reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool to detect heparanase, a biomarker for metastatic cancer. Detection of this disease increases the survivability of certain cancer types. To detect breast cancer in mice, we have developed a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET)-based gold, heparan sulfate dye (Au-HS-dye) nanoprobe which can detect increased heparanase activity. Metastatic cancer cells upregulate the expression of heparanase, an endoglycosidase which depolymerizes heparan sulfate (HS) expressed on both the cell membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM); this modification alters the ECM and results in pathogenesis. Our Au-HS-dye nanoprobe detects the upregulation of active heparanase in mouse plasma. The active heparanase digests the nanoprobe releasing the oligosaccharide-dye fragments resulting in an increase in fluorescence. This enhancement is recorded through an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) and charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In summary, we have developed a glyco-nanoprobe that diagnoses an active heparanase enzyme, a pathophysiological biomarker of cancer.